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J Am Med Inform Assoc doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001241
  • Research and applications

Reduction in medication errors in hospitals due to adoption of computerized provider order entry systems

Table 3

Summary data from systematically peer-reviewed literature evaluating medication error frequency before (pre) and after (post) implementation of computerized provider order entry (CPOE)

Author (year of publication) CPOE implementation and study setting (hospital department) Duration (months) Medication orders Medication errors Rate per 1000 orders Percentage difference (unweighted)*
Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Bates et al (1999)10 Select medical and intensive care units (inpatient) 1.7 5.6 10070 42516 255 340 25 8 −68
Bizovi et al (2002)12 Emergency department 2 2 2326 2169 54 11 23 5 −78
Cordero et al (2004)13 NICU 6 6 136 117 16 0 118 0 −100
Evans et al (1998)14 Intensive care unit 24 12 1813 942 787 134 434 142 −67
Igboechi et al (2003)15 Hospital wide (inpatient) 24 12 1868274 934137 5441 1247 3 1 −54
Kim et al (2006)16 Pediatric oncology unit 8 9.9 1259 1116 84 69 67 62 −7
Mahoney et al (2007)17 Hospital wide (inpatient) 12 12 1452346 1390789 4815 2227 3 2 −52
Taylor et al (2008)11 NICU 11 9 254 272 50 31 197 114 −42
Walsh et al (2008)18 NICU, PICU, select pediatric medical and surgical units (inpatient) 7 9 5777 6895 106 155 18 22 23
  • *Our calculated summary statistic (presented in table 4) used the DerSimonian–Laird method (DL) to pool these data, where each study's DL weight was multiplied by the unweighted percentage difference shown. The DL effect sizes are not included here, as they are not scaled in a meaningful way.

  • NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; PICU, pediatric intensive care unit.

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